If the withdrawal agreement is approved, an EU law (withdrawal agreement) will be introduced to implement the withdrawal agreement in UK law. In addition to the library`s briefing paper, the manual for judicious voting, this document contains an updated report on national constitutional requirements for ratification of the withdrawal agreement. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of „substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced „on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.” If passed, the bill would be an „extremely serious violation” of the withdrawal agreement and international law. Under the backstop, the UK will form a customs union with the EU (with the exception of trade in fisheries and aquaculture products, which is expected to be the subject of a new agreement on fishing opportunities by 1 July 2020).
The UK will comply with specific EU customs legislation, including for third countries, and some harmonisation of tax, environmental, labour law, state aid, competition and public enterprise/monopoly legislation will continue, but without any obligation to follow the new EU legislation and ECJ jurisprudence. In order to create a level playing field, the UK is committed not to competitiveise EU environmental protection, social and labour standards, state aid and competition, as well as state-owned enterprises in tax management.