On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020[40] and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020. [42] That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement[43] and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. The UK will keep a copy of the agreement while the original will return to Brussels where it will be kept in an archive along with other historic international agreements. The copy of the signed agreement was sent in a diplomatic bag for the Prime Minister`s signature in Downing Street. On Thursday, the withdrawal agreement received royal approval from the Queen. The reception of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes. The most important elements of the draft agreement are:[21] The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, is attached to the draft agreement of November 2018, which outlines provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. Earlier, the document had crossed the canal on Friday on a Eurostar train, after being signed in Brussels by European Council President Charles Michel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen. The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution.

It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries[9] and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification.