Voting trusts can be used to block a majority block by combining the voting power of several minority shareholders. It can also be used by minority shareholders to increase the power of their representation. Sometimes the voting trust can be an instrument of oppression in which a controlling shareholder convinces other minority shareholders to grant them the power of their votes (usually shareholders who are not involved in the transaction or who are very interested, such as children or grandchildren who have inherited their shares in the company) and then use that power to vote their shares against their interests. However, if the trust agreement gives the agent an unbridled discretion in the vote, the agent is still an agent and owes the rightful owner fiduciary duties, including, probably, the obligation to choose the action in the interest of the right owner and not to personally benefit from the right to vote. Voting agreements may include the granting of an agent to another party for the exercise of the vote. This agreement lies somewhere between the agent and the voting contract – the shareholder remains the shareholder or the data set, but the right to choose the share is transferred to another. Section 21.367 of the Code provides that a shareholder may vote personally or by written proxy to another person. A power of attorney is only valid for 11 months, unless otherwise provided by the instrument. A procurator is not irrevocable, unless the power is irrevocable ( 1) strikingly indicates that it is irrevocable and (2) the agent is „linked to an interest”, i.e. the right to vote is not only the transfer of voting rights, but that the agent has an interest in the shares, such as.B. to choose the shares until the debt is paid by the right to vote.

B. Unless the voting treaty is otherwise provided, a voting contract in this section is expressly enforceable.” [A.R.S. 10-731] Shareholders can also join each other in voting on certain issues in a certain way, i.e. voting as a bloc. Such an agreement can sometimes allow a group of shareholders to gain or maintain control, especially when a cumulative vote is allowed. Voting agreements differ from limited companies in that the shareholder remains the shareholder and there is no trust. Section 6.252 of the Business Organizations Code provides that these agreements are enforceable if they meet the following requirements: the voting agreement is an agreement or plan under which two or more shareholders consolidate their voting shares for a common purpose. It is also known as the pooling arrangement. Shareholders have a fundamental right to vote that cannot be compromised or violated by creation or by control entities. However, the law allows a shareholder to restrict or change his or her right to vote by agreement. A voting agreement is defined as as follows in state status: the agreement should be clearly mentioned on the certificate; Otherwise, the contract cannot be obtained in value against an acquirer who buys the stock without knowledge of the agreement. However, a person who receives the fund by donation or estate is bound by the agreement as soon as he or she is aware of it.

It is important to note that these voting agreements are only valid between shareholders with respect to shareholder votes.